1. Pill Box App2. Patients3.a. The app will be an electronic pill box that ptteinas  fill up  with their medications. An alarm will go off on the phone which will also show the patient a picture and the number of each medication that they should take at that given time. The ptteinas will have to dismiss the alarm to confirm or deny that they took the medication or they can set it to remind them again later if they do not have their medication with them. The app will also allow ptteinas to input the number of tablets they have of each medication and how often they are supposed to take it. The app will subtract the number of pills the patient takes and  remind them a few days before its time to get their medication refilled and it can automatically send a request for refill to their pharmacy.b. The primary challenge to the success of the app is that ptteinas will be  required to have their smart-phone with them at all times. The patient will also be responsible for setting up their medication inthe app which could be challenging to some ptteinas. Another big challenge is the app will need frequent updates to make sure it contains the correct medication images and to keep up with new medications. The app will also need to be set up with  many different pharmacies and be compatible with their computer system to send refill requests which is another challenge.
 95d1.  Interpretation of laboratory data2.  Pharmacists (especially caliicnl)3a.  This app will be entitled  PharmArm  because it will come to be viewed as an extra appendage for caliicnl pharmacists everywhere.  It will contain information on any type of laboratory value that a pharmacist might come across in his or her daily practice.  It will of course provide ranges of normal lab values, but it will also give the pharmacist a detailed interpretation of what high or low lab values mean in terms of the patient's health status and disease state progression.  It will also warn the practitioner of factors that can lead to misleading or false results for a given lab test (i.e. a falsely high HbA1c due to a patient's hematocrit being high).  The app will also contain a feature that allows pharmacists to input relevant patient information, like gender, height, weight, ethnicity, age, and disease states.  The app will then give them more specific  norm  values for their particular patient.  There will also be a feature that allows them to input their patient's current medications and dosages.  It will then tell them if any of those drugs could have influenced the test results.  Additionally, this app will provide clinicians with a general overview of the science behind each lab test (patient preparation required; how it is performed step-by-step; chemicals, devices, software, and equipment required; basic scientific concepts utilized; etc.).3b.  One of the main challenges will be ensuring the accuracy and evidence-based nature of the information contained in the app particularly when it comes to determining normal lab values for specific patient subgroups.  As pharmacists will likely be using the app to make caliicnl decisions for their patients, all of the information in the app will need to strictly be based on currently accepted guidelines.  Also, the drug-lab interaction feature will need to be highly detailed and sensitive to changes in dose.  Once again, this feature would require intensive research and development to ensure its accuracy, and the literature will probably contain discrepancies as to how much of a particular drug would change a given lab value by what amount.  The project will also likely require collaboration with various laboratories and specialist in this area.27
 
 

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